Emergency Preparedness, Shelter

How to Build a Winter Shelter


Shelters are particularly important in cold or rough weather or when you must  remain in an area for a prolonged period of time. Good shelter should:

• Protect you from the wind and the elements.

• Be easily built to conserve energy.

• Be easily and adequately ventilated.

• Be large enough to be comfortable but small enough to heat easily.

• The better your shelter, the less energy lost in compensating for its  inadequacies.

• All shelters should have entrances placed at 90° to the prevailing wind.  This will maximize your protection from the wind and prevent smoke from your  fire from curling back into the shelter.

• For large parties, it may be better to divide into groups of two, three, or  four, with each group building their own shelter. This will keep the shelter  sizes small and easier to heat. Build them close together to make communication  and work easier.Shelter Visibility

• Remember that almost all outdoor shelters (especially snow shelters) have  extremely poor contrast with the environment and will be difficult for search  parties to see.

• Keep a watch or make sure plenty of highly visible signals are left outside  the shelter.

When to Set Up Camp

Better early than late. Always give yourself at least an hour before dark to  set up your camp for the night, scour the local area for firewood and food, and  get your fire started. You can estimate the amount of time until sunset with  this technique:

• Face the sun and fully extend your arm towards the sun.

• Bend your wrist inwards so your fingers lie stacked one atop the other,  parallel to the horizon.

• Position the sun atop your uppermost finger.

• Each finger between the sun and the horizon represents 15 minutes, so if  you have four fingers between the horizon and the sun, you have approximately  one hour before sunset.

Choosing Your Campsite

If you need immediate shelter don’t worry about this section, just build the  quickest shelter you can with whatever you can find.

If you have time to choose a site, look for the following:

• Area free from signs of avalanche, flash flooding, falling rocks, incoming  tide, and lightning danger.

• Area free from animal kills and insect nests.

• Easy access to building and fuel materials.

• Absence of swampy ground, upright deadwood, and thick overhead vegetation  near your campsite.

• Natural wind barriers.

• Area free of heavy snowdrift.

• Proximity to water. Avoid being either too far or too near a source of  water. Mountain streams can rise 10 feet or more in a night, so note any high  water marks or drift lines.

• Minor steepness of area and ground clear enough to build on (or which can  be leveled and cleared with minimum effort).

• Thin timber for protection from snow and wind.

• View of the sky for seeing and signaling rescuers. Make sure they can see  you as well.

• Area not located at the base of steep cliffs or rocky slopes in case of  rockfall.

• Area not under leaning trees, even if they appear stable.

• Area not below high tide line along the shore or high water mark along a  stream edge. Not located in a streambed or gully, even if dry.

• Area not located in coastal mud flats or isolated from the main shore by  mudflats.

Helpful Shelter Building  Tips

Keeping Runoff Out of Your  Shelter

This will be a problem anywhere you build a shelter that isn’t on snow or  very high ground. Fortunately, it’s simple to solve. Just dig a small trench  around the shelter to funnel rainwater away from the bottom of your shelter.

Shelter1

Tarp-Tying Tips

If you have a tarp or space blanket, using rocks in  the corners to tie into knots will make a much more stable shelter than will  just weighing down the corners.Shelter2

Natural Shelters in All  Seasons

Caves

Caves have the advantage of being ready-made shelters, but their  disadvantages are significant. In particular:

• Your shelter does not help you get rescued because no one can see it.

• Rock walls absorb heat so will make staying warm much more difficult (and  require more energy expenditure).

• Caves are usually already occupied by wildlife, some of it bigger than  you.

• Caves tend to be damp and moldy, which makes staying warm and dry more  difficult and increases the risk of infections for open wounds.

• Consider building a better shelter if you are staying put. As transient  shelter, caves may be adequate.

• A lean-to of branches can be added to break the wind. Be cautious of caves  or recesses surrounded by animal feces or tracks, and always be careful of  snakes when first entering.

• Some caves are very deep and may have many twisting passages. Stay near the  entrance or leave well-marked trails.

Rock Shelters

• Rock shelters are really just windbreaks but may be helpful on open beaches  or in some desert areas.

• Build a rock shelter by stacking rocks into a U-shaped wall at least two  feet high. Sleep against the inside of the wall. Build your fire in the mouth of  the U.

90  Degree Shelter

• The 90 Degree shelter can be built anywhere a 90º angle can be found. This  includes bluffs above treeline, large boulders in the woods, and fallen  trees.

1) Locate an object with an approximate 90º angle between the ground and the  back wall.

2) If the ground is soft, create a shallow pit the size of your body at the  corner of the angle.

3) Line the pit with branches or bark slabs.

4) Build a fire next to the pit so that you lie in the pit between the fire  and the log. The maximal heat from such a fire is located at the corner of the  90ºangle.

• Leafy branches leaned over the pit will add additional protection.

• Wind breaks can be built at each edge of the angle to funnel wind away from  you and the fire.

Shelter3

Shelter4

Shelter5

Mild Weather Shelters

• In warm or mild weather it may not be worth the time or energy to build a  real shelter. In this case a number of fast and excellent options exist.

• Carefully tended, very small fires will safely warm any of these  shelters.

• All of these will insulate better if roofed over with a space blanket  (shiny side down) or plastic.

Short-Term Mild Weather  Shelters

The easiest may be the low-hanging tree. Many large pines drape their branches almost to the ground, and under these lowermost branches you are relatively safe from wind and rain. They also tend to have a comfortable layer of needles already there.

Shelter6

Next is the space blanket shelter, made by hanging one  cross-pole or rope from trees or rocks. Hang the space blanket over the  cross-pole and tie each corner to the ground (or weight it with rocks). A quick,  easy, and warm shelter. A tarp or your sheet of plastic (if not being used for  water collection) will work in place of the space blanket.

Shelter7

A tube tent can be formed out of two garbage bags with the  bottom of one bag split. The split bag is slid over the open end of the unsplit  bag. The tent can be propped open with padded sticks or hung on a line run  through the bags and tied to two trees. The tube tent can also be used without  support just by crawling into it.

Shelter8

Leaning pine branches against a tree trunk, tree branch, or rope strung  between two trees will also work. This is the classic lean-to. To ensure good shedding of rain, remember to build the ceiling at a 45º angle  and pack the ceiling with at least three inches of leafy branches or, better  yet, cover it with a plastic sheet.

Shelter9

Long-Term Mild Weather Shelters

• If you are not traveling and need a longer term shelter, the above shelters  will still work very well. Just insulate them more thoroughly and fortify them  against the wind by lashing everything together with fish line or cord.

The Wickiup (for Individuals or Small Groups)

• This is a quick, easy, and very good long-term shelter for one or two  people.

• This is a tepee-shaped lean-to, which can be built on open ground around a  tree or using fallen trees for support.

  1. Lean tree limbs, branches, or large leaves against each other to form a cone shape.
  2. Pile leaves, brush, dirt, bark, snow, or grass around the bottom and up the sides to the top, leaving an entrance at 90° to the prevailing wind.
  3. Lean more branches against this insulation to keep it in place.
  4. Break off or pull out any leaves or branches cluttering the inside. Your  shelter is done.

Shelter10

The  A-Frame (for Groups)

If you have a large number of people or want a more comfortable place to stay, try an A-frame:

  1.     Construct your A-frame so that the prevailing wind strikes a  back corner first.
  2.     First place your roof cross-pole. This may be leaned against a  tree or rock, hung between two of these, or supported by two poles planted into  the ground.
  3.     Tie sticks to each side of the cross pole so that they lean at  a 60° angle to the ground.
  4.     Next find wall materials. These may be bark, downward-pointing  pine boughs, bundles of grass, or large tree or plant leaves.
  5.     Start with the bottom row. Lay a single row of the material  packed as tight as possible and tied to the angled sticks.
  6.     Lay the rest of the rows, moving upwards. Wall material should  be layered so that each bundle or section is overlapped by the bundle or section  above it.
  7.     Wall all but one end of the A-frame.
  8.     Fill in gaps and leaks and put on a second layer if needed to  prevent leaks. Put as much wall material on as you must to keep out the wind and  rain and hold in heat. If you can see light through the wall it probably needs  more insulation.
  9.     Build your fire outside the open end of the A-frame, with a  heat-reflecting rock or log on the other side of the fire if the weather is  chilly.

• A space blanket or more branches should be hung over the entrance on chilly  nights unless the fire is going.

Shelter11

Surviving Your Snow Shelter

• The presence of snow makes survival more difficult but finding shelter much  easier.

• The makeshift snow saw can come in handy when constructing and repairing  snow shelters.

Shelter12

When to  Seek Shelter

• It is important in cold weather, particularly in snow-covered areas, to  seek shelter early on in a storm.

• Never try to find your way out while the storm is ongoing.

• Construct a snow shelter and wait it out; otherwise you may wander in  circles, stumble into dangerous shallows or icy slopes, or just burn up all your  energy and freeze to death.

Vehicle  vs. Shelter

• It is warmer in a snow shelter than in vehicle wreckage, particularly in a  strong wind, since the wreckage is out in the open and will NOT effectively seal  in heat. Equally important, snow is a better insulator than the metal walls of a  vehicle because of the insulating air spaces between snow crystals.

• In addition, you want to conserve heat by minimizing the amount of space  your body must heat up. In a car your body is trying to raise the temperature of  the entire car.

• Get out of your vehicle and dig a snow shelter right next to it. IF A  WHITEOUT IS ONGOING, DON’T TAKE YOUR HAND OFF YOUR CAR!

Do not, if your car still works, sit inside and run the engine for  heat. Carbon monoxide, an invisible, odorless and TOXIC gas, may accumulate  inside the car. You will get drowsy, fall asleep, and never wake up.

Tips When Utilizing Snow Shelters

• Be aware of avalanche and lightning dangers when selecting your shelter  site.

• Always take your gear in with you or it may be lost or buried outside.

• Store your food and water in the shelter with you, preferably next to your  body, to keep it from freezing solid.

• Mark your snow shelter well if you plan to use it more than once or even  travel 200 yards from it. Snow shelters disappear into the landscape very  quickly.

• For this same reason, large and prominent signals should be placed outside  the shelter. Otherwise rescuers won’t be able to hear or see you.

• Snow is a great insulator of sound as well as heat. Don’t count on hearing  aircraft or rescuers through the walls of your snow shelter. Build large,  prominent signals outside your shelter.

• In severe cold, dig deeper snow shelters with longer, more sloping  entrances.

Problems in Snow  Shelters

• The five main problems in snow shelters are ventilation, drifting snow,  melting snow, snow blindness, and the internal temperature gradient.

Ventilation

• To ensure adequate ventilation and avoid the buildup of carbon monoxide,  leave at least one hole in the roof at a 90° angle to the prevailing wind. This  need only be a few inches in width, wider if you have an open flame inside your  shelter.

• A smaller hole should be poked through the opposite side of the shelter to  allow cross ventilation.

• Leave a branch in the shelter to occasionally clear the holes of snow.

• Leave the entrance open whenever a fire is going, and place the fire near  the entrance hole.

• Watch each other for signs of carbon monoxide poisoning whenever an open  flame is present at the entrance to your shelter.

Drifting Snow

• Drifting snow will be a major problem if you fail to place your entrance at  a 90° angle to the prevailing wind. It will blow straight in your front entrance  or swirl in your back one. It is possible for drifting snow to block your  entrance completely and force you to dig your way out.

• Drifting snow will be a major problem even if you do position your entrance  correctly because it can often block your ventilation hole, leaving you short on  air or oversupplied with carbon monoxide. To avoid this, place your ventilation  hole at the same angle to the wind as your door (90º). More importantly, keep a  sturdy stick inside with you to clear it regularly during falling snow.

Melting Snow

• Never sleep on the snow. Use anything to sleep on but the snow. It steals  body heat and soaks your clothing.

• To prevent getting wet from melting snow, sleep on top of a couple of leafy  branches or bundles of grass or sticks.

• Run your gloved hand or a smooth stick down the walls of your snow shelter  to smooth them into a curve. You want melting roof snow to run down the sides,  not to drip on you.

• Don’t think a snow shelter is supposed to be as warm as home. It must be  kept cold enough, inside and out, to support the frozen structure of the walls.  Keep your fires small and don’t hesitate to open the ventilation holes more if  the walls are becoming mushy.

Snow Blindness

• You can get snow blindness even in a snow shelter. If you can see daylight  through the walls, then you can get snow blindness. If it’s bright out, add snow  to the outside of your snow shelter to cut down on the interior glow.

Temperature Gradient

• The temperature gradient is caused by the tendency of hot air to rise above  cold air. Temperature gradients in snow caves can go from 0º near the floor to  50º near the ceiling.

• Since you want as much of the heat as possible around your body, you should  have your bed raised (in a side tunnel or on a raised snow platform) as high as  possible, and your roof as low as possible.

• Hang your snow-filled bottle near the roof to melt snow into water.

Precautions to Take While Digging Your Shelter

• Take off your outer layer of clothes. Don’t stay so bundled up that you  sweat.

• Use some sort of digging tool, be it a piece of metal, a square of bark, or  a stick. Avoid frostbite by avoiding the use of your hands alone unless thickly  gloved.

Fine-Tuning Your Snow Shelter

• If the roof of your snow shelter melts and drips excessively, the roof is  too thick. Scrape some off or add more ventilation.

• If the roof of your snow shelter is frosted or icy in the morning, it is  probably too thin. Add some more snow on top.

• If the roof of the snow shelter settles as much as five inches, nothing is  wrong. Just add more snow on top of the shelter and let it settle and freeze.  After the new layer freezes, scrape away snow from the inside.

Maximizing Warmth in a Snow Shelter

• The most important way to maximize warmth is to avoid sleeping directly on  the snow. Sleep on evergreen branches (the softer the better), extra clothes,  plastic, or a backpack. Use bark, dirt, branches, and leaves, even rocks if it  means keeping dry.

• Also, if there is more than one of you, sleep close together to minimize  heat loss and share body heat.

• Keep your roof low and your bed high.

• Keep your entrance small and blocked when not in use. Dig your entrance  lower than the floor of your shelter.

• Remember that snow closer to the ground is warmer than fresh-fallen snow or  surface snow.

• Sleep whenever you can. Going to sleep will not kill you if you are not  severely hypothermic. You will awaken if you get too cold, and sleeping saves  energy. You help no one by avoiding sleep.

Read more: http://www.motherearthnews.com/do-it-yourself/winter-shelter-ze0z1301zsau.aspx#ixzz2Jg2x1vSv

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About myoung

Ben and Marcy Young are the owners of Southern Oregon Survival.

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